Press-to-log (Biomass Densification) technology was developed in USA during World War-II. After World War, use of Biomass Briquettes was replaced with Liquid Fuel. During 1960-70, Europe was facing difficulty in central heating system fuel management. Large lumber houses were generating lot of wood waste.
Press to log technology was gainfully utilized by two European groups – Fred Hausman, Swiss Co and Nelson, Danish Co. Briquetting Press was designed and exclusively used for converting lumber house saw dust. During seventies and eighties, even demand for these Briquetting Presses declined. During this time Fred Hausman concentrated on Asian market and sizable market was developed. Nelson was looking for European market and subsequently African market.
In India, earlier Fred Hausman presses could not work well in processing abrasive Biomass like Rice husk and other husk. Integrated technology was developed in India and has been perfected over the last 20 years
- For drying the wood waste, bagasse etc to reduce the moisture to around 15%
- For grinding the materials to increase the density to 140 – 160 Kgs/m3.
In India, few thousand Briquetting Presses having capacity from 500 Kgs/hour to 2000 Kgs/hour are working as on date. The total briquette production in India exceeds 5 Million tons per annum.
BINDERLESS BRIQUETTING OF BIOMASS:
High Pressure Extrusion Technology is used for Briquetting of dry granular biomass. Preprocessed biomasses having the following properties should be used for Briquetting.
- Moisture : 12-15%
- Granular Size : – 6/10 mm edge to edge (Depending on briquette Size)
- Bulk Density : 140-160 Kgs/m3
- Material is pre-compressed in feeder box of Briquetting Press.
- Extrusion ram presses this pre-compressed biomass at high pressure of 1250 Kg/cm2 into matrix of dies.
- First fixed die is tapered and gives back resistance to moving disc of biomass.
- Temperature of biomass rises up to 300-3500 C and lignin comes out at outer layer of disc.
- Constant ramming of disc joins each other under high compression.
- At this stage disc is extracted through split die and cooled to temperature up to 100-1200 C externally by circulating water.
- Biomass Briquettes so formed moves into cooling line is cooled to room temperature.
LIST OF BRIQUETTABLE MATERIALS:
- Saw Dust, Sander Dust, Wood Chips, Shavings, Tree Bark & Twigs, Pine Needles, Lantana Camera, Juliflora, Wild Grasses & Shrubs, Bamboo Chips & Dust, Bagasse, Sugarcane Leaves & Trash, Coir Dust etc.
- Husks (Rice, Coffee, Sunflower, Mustard etc)
- Shells (Ground Nut, Almond, Castor etc)
- Cobs (Maize, Bajra etc)
- Stalks (Cotton, Arhar, Maize, Mustard etc)
- Municipal Solid Waste
Director, Hi Tech Agro Energy Pvt. Ltd
(Hi Tech Agro Energy is one of the leading companies providing Integrated Turn Key Solutions for setting up of such plants.)